SOMOT Samuel

Chercheur permanent au CNRM-GAME (CNRS UMR3589 & Météo-France)


Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (depuis 2003)

Groupe de Modélisation Grande Echelle et Climat / Equipe ARPEGE-Climat

42, Av. G. Coriolis

31057 Toulouse Cedex 1, France

_ Tél. +33 (0) 5 61 07 93 62

Fax +33 (0) 5 61 07 96 10

Office #295 : Bâtiment Navier (CNRM)

courriel : samuel (dot) somot (at) meteo (dot) fr

Curriculum Vitae - Version 2014 CV.pdf

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Scientific Interests





 Scientific interests

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Regional climate modelling :

The goal of the climate regionalization is to study regional physical phenomena (from 10 to 50 km) not reachable by the state-of-the-art global climate models (too low spatial resolution) and to study these processes at climate time scales (intraseasonal, interannual and decadal variability, trend, climate change), that are not reachable by very high-resolution process-oriented models (MesoNH, AROME, …). The climate regionalization then requires both long-term simulations and high-spatial resolution.

In the frame of the climate group at CNRM, I’m using two regional climate models (RCMs) : the tilted and stretched-grid version of ARPEGE-Climate and the LAM (limited area model) ALADIN-Climate. ARPEGE-Climate is a global and spectral AGCM allowing a resolution of 50 km over the area of interest in using its zoom capability. It can also be considered as a two-way nested RCM. ALADIN-Climate is a newly developed RCM at CNRM. It can be forced at its lateral boundaries either by ECWMF products (ERA40, ERA-Interim, ECMWF analysis) or by any version of ARPEGE-Climate. Up-to-now ALADIN-Climate was used at 150, 50, 25 and 12 km resolution. Using reanalysis-driven simulations such ARPEGE-Climate with spectral nudging (also called ARPERA, Herrmann and Somot 2008) or ALADIN-Climate with lateral nudging and spectral nudging (also called ALDERA, Herrmann et al. 2011) we developed “poor-man regional reanalysis” or “regional hindcast” in order to obtain physically-consistent high-resolution meteorological fields following the real chronology over a long period of time (typically 1958-2013 for ARPERA and 1979-2013 for ALDERA). These regional hindcast simulations are very useful for model physics/configuration evaluation (Herrmann et al. 2011), past case studies, past climate variability studies (Josey et al. 2011), sensitivity studies (Nabat et al. 2014a, 2014b) and can be used to replace observations if missing, for example to drive regional ocean models (Beuvier et al. 2010, Herrmann et al. 2010).

Using that numerical tools, my research activities focus on Europe and the Mediterranean basin. I study the regional climate variability but also some specific regional physical phenomena such as Mediterranean cyclogenesis (Somot 2005), regional winds (Herrmann et al. 2011), heavy precipitation events (Ricard et al. 2009, Colin et al. 2010, Beauland et al. 2011), Mediterranean air-sea fluxes (Herrmann and Somot 2008, Herrmann et al. 2011, Josey et al. 2011, Papadopoulos et al. 2012) as well as open-ocean deep convection, water mass formation and Mediterranean ThermoHaline Circulation (Herrmann et al. 2008a, 2008b, Herrmann et al. 2010, Beuvier et al. 2010, Beuvier et al. 2012, L’heveder et al. 2013, Sevault et al. 2014). I also focus on the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat Budgets concerning the estimations of the various and model evaluation (Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2009, Elguindi et al. 2010, Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2011, Dubois et al. 2012, Soto-Navarro et al. 2014, Sevault et al. 2014). My scientific interests include also methodology studies dealing with the main qualities and drawbacks of the Regional Climate Models (Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2008, Radu et al. 2008, Colin et al. 2010) as well as all kind of studies related to the understanding of Mediterranean climate variability.

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The Mediterranean Sea and the Mediterranean ThermoHaline Circulation (MTHC) :

The Mediterranean basin is a good case-study for climate regionalization. It is indeed surrounded by various and complex topography channelling regional winds (Mistral, Tramontane, Bora, Etésiens, Sirocco) that define local climates. Many small-size islands limits the low-level air masses and its coastline is particularly complex. These geographical characteristics require high-resolution climate modelling. What is true for the Mediterranean climate is also true for the Mediterranean Sea (complex coastlines, islands, narrow and shallow straits). To correctly represent the Mediterranean Sea, we need ocean models with at least a 10 km resolution. In the frame of the climate group at CNRM, we develop and use different regional Mediterranean versions of the global ocean NEMO code : OPAMED8 (Somot et al. 2006) then NEMOMED8 (9 to 12 km spatial resolution and 43 vertical levels, Beuvier et al. 2010) and more recently NEMOMED12 (6 to 7 km spatial resolution and 75 vertical levels, Beuvier et al. 2012). Many authors consider than the Mediterranean Sea is a laboratory of the global ocean as it shows (close to the European coast) many key and interesting ocean physical processes and, among them, the open-sea deep convection that usually stands in the Greenland, the Labrador and the Weddell Seas. The Mediterranean areas of deep convection (Gulf of Lions, South Adriatic, Rhodes Gyre and the Cretan Sea) lead to an anti-estuarine thermohaline circulation with 3 main layers : a surface layer with the Modified Atlantic Water (MAW, warm and fresh) that flows into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar, an intermediate layer with the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW, relatively warm and very salty) and a deep one with the different cold and salty water masses (WMDW, AdDW, EMDW, CDW). The ocean deep convection and the MTHC are well-adapted processes for climate regionalization activities. Their modelling requires high spatial air-sea fluxes, fine representation of the Mediterranean Sea and they show a strong interannual to decadal variability and long-term trends. Moreover the MTHC can influence the surrounding climate in modulating the local SST. It has also an impact on the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at about 1000 m and are considered as a source of salt and heat for the Atlantic Ocean.

The study of the Mediterranean Sea, of the high-resolution air-sea fluxes, of the open-sea deep convection, the deep water mass formation and of the Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation, its regional climate influence and its climate-scale variability are included into my main research interests (Somot et al. 2006, Herrmann and Somot 2008, Herrmann et al. 2008, Herrmann et al. 2010, Beuvier et al. 2010, Josey et al. 2011, Herrmann et al. 2011, Beuvier et al. 2012, L’heveder et al. 2013, Durrieu de Madron et al. 2013).

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Mediterranean cyclogenesis and Mediterranean intense precipitations :

Another interesting Mediterranean phenomenon is the cyclogenesis. The Gulf of Genoa is one of the major cyclogenesis area of the Northern Hemisphere. The cyclones are formed in the lee side of the main orography anomalies of the Mediterranean basin such as the Alps, the Apennins or the Atlas Mountains. The Mediterranean cyclones are sub-synoptic systems, smaller and with a shorter life-time than their Atlantic cousins. Their specific scales, their orography-induced genesis and their ability to produce intense precipitation events require to use regional climate numerical tools to study their interannual variability and their possible evolution under the climate change. The Mediterranean cyclogenesis was one of my first scientific topic (see my PhD) but my scientific interest slowly moved towards one of the related phenomena : the Mediterranean heavy precipitation events sometimes called “cevenoles” events that can reached few 100 mm/day precipitations in the South-East of France. The better way of modelling such events, their interannual variability, and their possible evolution during the 21st century constitute now one of my main research topics thanks to the CYPRIM, MEDUP and REMEMBER projects in the frame of the HyMeX programmes (Ricard et al. 2009, Colin et al. 2010). Hybrid downscaling techniques mixing dynamical and statistical methods and using very high resolution non-hydrostatic models are developed in collaboration with the CNRM meso-scale research group (Beauland et al. 2011). The impact of the high frequency ocean-atmosphere coupling on these intense events is also studied.

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Fully-coupled Regional Climate System Models dedicated to the Mediterranean climate study : coupling Aerosols-Atmosphere-Land-Hydrology-River-Ocean

The cyclogenesis, the intense precipitation, the open-sea deep convection and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation have at least one common point. These phenomena strongly depend on the high-resolution air-sea interactions. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the deep convection occur following cyclone-induced winds and strong air-sea fluxes. The large heat and water losses induced by the Mediterranean cyclones and winds enhance the deep convection. Besides the ocean mixed layer depth drives the Mediterranean heat content and then its capacity to release water and energy to feed Mediterranean cyclones and intense precipitation events. It is therefore logical to study these processes through an air-sea coupled approach using high-resolution Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model (AORCM). This scientific topic started during my PhD defended in December 2005. Since 2002 and in collaboration with the CNRM/GMGEC/MEMO team, we developed at CNRM various Mediterranean-dedicated AORCMs first coupling the stretched ARPEGE-Climate with OPAMED8 (Somot et al. 2008) then the LAM ALADIN-Climate with NEMOMED8 (Herrmann et al. 2011) using the OASIS coupler developed at CERFACS.

More recently, we enlarged our primary regional ocean-atmosphere approach by integrating other components of the regional climate system to obtain fully coupled Mediterranean-dedicated Regional Climate System Models (RCSM). In the frame of the HyMeX and Med-CORDEX programmes, we developed the 4th generation of the CNRM Regional Climate System Model (CNRM-RCSM4, Sevault et al. 2014, Nabat et al. 2014a, Nabat et al. 2014b). It includes the regional representation of all the physical components of the regional climate system that is to say, the atmosphere (ALADIN, 50km), the land surface and hydrology (ISBA, 50 km), the rivers (TRIP, 50 km), the ocean (NEMOMED8, 10 km) and recently the aerosols (50 km). The addition of new components such as the waves, the lakes, the cities, the marine biogeochemistry is on-going.

With these numerical tools, we studied the above-mentioned physical phenomena as well as their interannual to decadal variability. Differences between non-coupled and coupled models have been identified and understood in the mean behaviour as well as in the interannual variability of some of these phenomena. CNRM-RCSM4 also allows to produce consistent regional climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean climate and the Mediterranean Sea. The possible evolution of the Mediterranean cyclogenesis, the heavy precipitation events, the ocean deep convection, the deep water mass formation and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during the 21st century can then be simulated following various IPCC climate change hypothesis (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5).

Today, all the institutes developing Mediterranean RCSMs are coordinated in the Med-CORDEX initiative (, Ruti et al., submitted).

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 Projects :

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List of the programmes and projects in which I have collaborated or I collaborate.

International projects

Med-CLIVAR : Study of the climate variability with the Mediterranean area, atmosphere and ocean components, on-going

WCRP–CORDEX : International intercomparison program for Regional Climate Models validation and coordinated regional scenarios for the IPCC-AR5, on-going

Med–CORDEX : Mediterranean region of the International CORDEX programme (modelling of all the components of the regional climate system, 12 km RCM, fully coupled RCSM). Med-CORDEX is currently the regional climate modelling task of HyMeX (former HyMeX-TTM3) on-going

HyMeX : Study of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle and related extreme events, 2010-2020, on-going

MerMex : Study of the Mediterranean Sea physics, biogeochemistry and marine ecosystems, 2010-2020, on-going

Charmex : Study of the Mediterranean Chemistry and Aerosols, 2010-2020, on-going

MISTRALS : Meta-programme, also called Chantier Méditerranée, for the integrated study of the Mediterranean at regional and local scales, 2010-2020 on-going. This includes my participation to HyMeX, Charmex, MerMex, PlankMed, ENVI-MED CLIHMag and ENVI-MED Med-MaHb

European projects

FP7-CLIMRUN : Research project on the development of pilote climate service for the Mediterranean region, 2011-2014, S. Somot, WP2 leader

FP7-IMPACT2C : Climate change impact for the Mediterranean Basin, development and intercomparison of AORCM (ARPEGE-Climate / NEMO-MED2 / NEMO-ORCA2), finished

ERANet-CIRCLE-MED CANTICO : Risk assessment in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia), integrated project from regional climate modelling to risk, finished, S. Somot, French PI

FP6-CECILIA : Very high resolution modelling of Eastern Europe Climate and climate change impact in Eastern Europe, ALADIN-Climate (10 km), finished

FP6-ENSEMBLES : Regional climate modelling : European hindcast and climate change scenarios, intercomparison, ARPEGE-Climat, ALADIN-Climat (20 km), finished

FP5-PRUDENCE : Regional climate modelling and climate change scenario for Europe, ARPEGE-Climat (50 km), finished

FP4-MERCURE : Regional climate modelling, model validation and improvment, ARPEGE-Climat (50 km), finished

French projects

ANR-REMEMBER : The main goal is to improve the components (atmosphere, ocean, land surface) and the interfaces (air-sea, land-atmosphere, river) of the Mediterranean Regional Climate System Models developed in France CNRM-RCSM4, MORCE-MED, LMDz-MED in order to better assess and project specific Mediterranean risks (intense precipitation, droughts and sea level evolution) on-going, S. Somot, WP5 co-leader

ANR-ASICS-MED : Evaluate the role of the ocean meso- and submeso-scale processes in the dense water mass formation in the North-West Mediterranean Sea, follwing the HyMeX-2013 field campaign. le rôle de la méso et subméso-échelle océanique dans la production des eaux denses en Méditerranée occidentale, d’après la campagne de l’hiver 2013 du programme HyMeX on-going

PPR-SiMed, PPR-SiMed-2, and HyMeX-SiMed-3 : High-resolution modelling of the Mediterranean Sea,on-going

LEFE-MISSTERRE, LEFE-MISSTERRE-II, LEFE-MISSTERRE-II : coordination of the French climate modelling community including Regional Climate Modelling, on-going

ANR-VURCA : Impact of climate change on French cities, case of the heat waves, finished

ANR-MEDUP : Mediterranean extreme events and uncertainties from the short-term forecast to the regional climate scales, finished

ANR-SCAMPEI : Very high resolution climate modelling for France, impact of climate change on the snow cover and hydrology (ALADIN-Climate, 10 km), finished

ANR-CICLE : Tests for the set-up of a quadri-coupled model : towards a regional coupled model embedded into a global coupled model for the Mediterranean climate study (ARPEGE+ALADIN+NEMO-ORCA2+NEMO-MED8), finished

ACI-CYPRIM : Intense precipitation events in the South-East of France at different time scales, development of new statistico-dynamical downscaling methods for regional climate study, AORCM SAMM=ARPEGE/OPAMED8, first Mediterranean AORCM SRES-A2 scenario, finished

GICC-MedWater : Modelling and climate change impact for the Mediterranean area, use of the stretched ARPEGE-Climate for a first Mediterranean Sea scenario with OPAMED8 (SRES-A2), finished

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 Publications :

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Peer-reviewed publications

Since 2006, I’m co-author of more than 70 peer-reviewed publications

submitted or in revision

Estournel C., Testor P., Taupier-Letage I., Bouin M.-N., Coppola L., Durand P., Conan P., Beguery L., Belamari S., Béranger K., Beuvier J., Bourras D., Canut G., Conan P., Doerenbecher A., Drobinski P., Ducrocq V., Giordani H., Hauser D., Labatut L., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nuret M., Prieur L., Roussot O., Somot S. (2014) HyMeX-SOP2, the field campaign dedicated to dense water formation in the northwestern Mediterranean. Oceanography (submitted).

Adloff F., Somot S., Sevault F., Déqué M., Herrmann M., Dubois C., Aznar R. Padorno E., Alvarez-Fanjuls E., Jordà G., Gomis D. (2014) Sensivity of the Mediterranean Sea to boundary forcings in an ensemble of 21st century climate change scenarios. Clim. Dyn. (submitted)

Nabat P., S. Somot, M. Mallet, M. Michou, F. Sevault, F. Driouech, D. Meloni, A. Di Sarra, C. Di Biagio, P. Formenti, M. Sicard, J.-F. Léon, and M.-N. Bouin (2014) Dust aerosol radiative effects during summer 2012 simulated with a coupled regional aerosol-atmosphere-ocean model over the Mediterranean. submitted to ACPD/AMTD. MS No. : acp-2014-527
Special Issue : CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx)

Ruti P., S. Somot, C. Dubois, S. Calmanti, B. Ahrens, A. Alias, R. Aznar, J. Bartholy, S. Bastin, K. Béranger, J. Brauch, J.-C. Calvet, A. Carillo, B. Decharme, A. Dell’Aquila, V. Djurdjevic, P. Drobinski, A. Elizalde-Arellano, M. Gaertner, P. Galan, C. Gallardo, F. Giorgi, S. Gualdi, A. Harzallah, M. Herrmann, D. Jacob, S. Khodayar, S. Krichak, C. Lebeaupin, B. L’Heveder, L. Li, G. Liguro, P. Lionello, B. Onol, B. Rajkovic, G. Sannino, F. Sevault (2014) MED-CORDEX initiative for Mediterranean Climate studies (submitted to BAMS)

Palmiéri J., Orr J.C., Dutay J.C., Béranger K., Schneider A., Beuvier J. Somot S. (2014) Simulated anthropogenic CO2 uptake and acidification of the Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences Discuss., 11, 6461-6517, doi:10.5194/bgd-11-6461-2014, (in revision)

Houpert L., Testor P., Durrieu de Madron X., Somot S., D’Ortenzio F., Estournel C. Lavigne H. (2014) Seasonal cycle of upper-ocean heat budget in the Mediterranean Sea : an observational approach. Progress in Oceanography, SI : North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans’ State and Variability, (in revision)


Sevault F., Somot S., Alias A., Dubois C., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nabat P., Adloff F., Déqué M. And Decharme B. (2014) Ocean simulation of the 1980-2012 period for the Mediterranean Sea using a fully-coupled atmosphere-land-hydrology-river-ocean Regional Climate System Model : design and evaluation. Tellus (accepted in oct 2014)

Lucas-Picher P., Riboust , Somot S., Laprise R. (2014) Reconstruction of the spring 2011 Richelieu River flood by two regional climate models and a hydrological model. Journal of Hydrometeorology (accepted in Oct 2014). JHM-D-14-0116

Georgiou, S., Mantziafou A., Sofianos S., Gertman I., Özsoy E., Somot S., Vervatis V. (2014) Climate variability and deepwater mass characteristics in the Aegean Sea, Atmospheric Research (in press),

Andrello M., Mouillot D., Somot S., Thuiller W., Manel S. (2014) Additive effects of climate change on connectivity among marine protected areas and larval supply to fished areas. Diversity and Distributions (in press)

Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., Wild M. (2014b) Contribution of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to the changing Euro-Mediterranean climate since 1980. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060798.

Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M., Sevault F., Chiacchio M., Wild M. (2014a) Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled Regional Climate System Model. Clim. Dyn (on line) DOI : 10.1007/s00382-014-2205-6
available on-line,

Hattab T., Albouy C., Lasram F.B.R., Somot S., Leloc’h F., Leprieur F. (2014) Towards a better understanding of potential climate change impacts on marine species distribution. Global Ecology and Biogeography (accepted in June 2014) (GEB-2013-0426)

Soto-Navarro J., Somot S., Sevault F., Beuvier J., Béranger K., Criado-Aldeanueva F., García-Lafuente J. (2014) Evaluation of regional ocean circulation models for the Mediterranean Sea at the strait of Gibraltar : volume transport and thermohaline properties of the outflow. Clim.Dyn. Climate Dynamics, 1-16. doi : 10.1007/s00382-014-2179-4

Lemonsu A., Beaulant A.L., Somot S., Masson V. (2014) Evolution of heat wave occurrence over the Paris basin (France) in the 21st centruy. Climate Research, doi:10.3354/cr01235, Vol. 61:75-91

Auger P.A., Ulses C., Estournel C., Stemman L., Somot S., Diaz F. (2014) Interannual control of plankton ecosystem in a deep convection area as inferred from a 30-year 3D modeling study : winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean. Progress in Oceanography : 12-27, DOI : 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.004

Briche E., Beltrando G. Somot S., Quenol H (2014) Critical analysis of simulated daily temperature data from the ARPEGE-Climate model : application to climate change in Champagne wine-producing region. Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-1044-5

Drobinski P., V. Ducrocq, P. Alpert, E. Anagnostou, K. Béranger, M. Borga, I. Braud, A. Chanzy, S. Davolio, G. Delrieu, C. Estournel, N. Filali Boubrahmi, J. Font, V. Grubisic, S. Gualdi, B. Ivancan-Picek, C. Kottmeier, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, P. Lionello, M.C. Llasat, W. Ludwig, C. Lutoff, A. Mariotti, E. Richard, R. Romero, R. Rotunno, O. Roussot, I. Ruin, S. Somot, I. Taupier-Letage, J. Tintore, R. Uijlenhoet, H. Wernli (2014) HyMeX : A 10-Year Multidisciplinary Program on the Mediterranean Water Cycle (Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Volume 95, Issue 7, pp. 1063–1082 (July 2014), doi : 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00242.1)

Pascual A., Vidal-Vijande E., Ruiz S., Somot S., Papadopoulos V. (2014) Spatio-temporal variability of the surface circulation in the Western Mediterranean : a comparative study using altimetry and modeling. In The Mediterranean Sea : Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns, Geophysical Monograph 202”. Eds. Borzelli G.L.E., M. Gacic, P. Lionello, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, American Geophysical Union (First Edition). ISBN-10 : 1118847342 (2014)

Lamon L., Rizzi J., Bonaduce A., Dubois C., Lazzari O., Ghenim L., Gana S., Somot S., Li L., Melaku Kanu D., Solidoro C., Pinardi N., Marcomini A. (2014) An ensemble of models for identifying climate change scenarios in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Regional Environmental Change (Special issue, February 2014). volume 14, supplement 1, pages S31-S40. DOI : 10.1007/s10113-013-0430-x


Drobinski P., Ducrocq V., Bastin S., Bélamari S., Béranger K., Bock O., Boudevillain B., Bouin M.N., Braud I., Calvet J.C. Chanzy A., Coppola L., Courault D., Delrieu G., Estournel C., Flamant C., Giordani H., Labatut L., Lutoff C., Martin E., Mahfouf J.M., Mastrorillo L., Orain F., Ramage K., Richard E., Roujean J.L., Roussot O., Ruin I., Somot S., Taupier-Letage I., Testor P., Ludwig W. (2013) HyMeX, le cycle de l’eau méditerranéen à la loupe. La Météorologie, n.80, page 23-36, février 2013

Tramblay Y., Ruelland D., Somot S., Bouaicha R., Servat E. (2013) High-resolution Med-CORDEX regional climate model simulations for hydrological impact studies : a first evaluation of the ALADIN-Climate model in Morocco. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3721-3739,doi:10.5194/hess-17-3721-2013 (

Jacob D., Petersen J., Eggert B., Alias A., Christensen O.B., Bouwer L., Braun A., Colette A., Déqué M., Georgievski G., Georgopoulou E., Gobiet A., Menut L., Nikulin G., Haensler A., Hempelmann N., Jones C., Keuler K., Kovats S., Kröner N., Kotlarski S., Kriegsmann A., Martin E., van Meijgaard E., Moseley C., Pfeifer S., Preuschmann S., Radtke K., Rechid D., Rounsevell M., Samuelsson P., Somot S., Soussana J.-F., Teichmann C., Valentini R., Vautard R., Weber B. And Yiou P. (2013) EURO-CORDEX : New high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research. Regional Environmental Change (on-line in July 2013) doi : 10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2

Nabat P., S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J.-J. Morcrette, F. Solmon, S. Szopa, F. Dulac, W. Collins, S. Ghan, L.W. Horowitz, J.F. Lamarque, Y.H. Lee, V. Naik, T. Nagashima, D. Shindell, R. Skeie (2013) A 4-D climatology (1979-2009) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1287-1314, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1287-2013

Vervatis, V. D., S. S. Sofianos, N. Skliris, S. Somot, A. Lascaratos, and M. Rixen (2013), Mechanisms controlling the thermohaline circulation pattern variability in the Aegean-Levantine region. A hindcast simulation (1960-2000) with an eddy resolving model, Deep-Sea Research Part I, 74:82-97, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.12.011

Durrieu de Madron X., Houpert L., Sanchez-Vidal A., Puig P., Testor P., Estournel C., Somot S., Bourrin F., Canals M., Palanques A., Mortier L., Bouin M.N., Heussner S., Calafat A., Martin J., Font J., Kunesch S., Raimbault P. (2013) Interaction of deep dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean in winter 2012
Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 1–7, doi:10.1002/grl.50331

Gualdi S., S. Somot, W. May, S. Castellari, M. Déqué, M. Adani, V. Artale, A. Bellucci, J. S. Breitgand, A. Carillo, R. Cornes, A. Dell’Aquila, C. Dubois, D. Efthymiadis, A. Elizalde, L. Gimeno, C. M. Goodess, A. Harzallah, S. O. Krichak, F. G. Kuglitsch, G. C. Leckebusch, B. L’Heveder, L. Li, P. Lionello, J. Luterbacher, A. Mariotti, A. Navarra, R. Nieto, K. M. Nissen, P. Oddo, P. Ruti, A. Sanna, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault, M. V. Struglia, A. Toreti, U. Ulbrich and E. Xoplaki (2013b) Future Climate Projections, In : Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, Volume 1. Eds. Navarra, A., and L. Tubiana, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 53-118.

Sofianos S., V. Vervatis, N. Skliris, S. Somot, A. Lascaratos and A. Mantziafou (2013), Climate variability and water mass formation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Part 2, pages 729-735, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-29172-2.

L’Heveder B., Li L., Sevault F., Somot S. (2013) Interannual variability of deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean simulated with a coupled AORCM. Climate Dyn., 41:937-960. doi : 10.1007/s00382-012-1527-5

Albouy C., Guilhaumon F., Leprieur F., Lasram F.B.R., Somot S., Aznar R, Velez L., Leloc’h F., Mouillot D. (2013) Projected climate change and the changing biogeography of coastal Mediterranean fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 40(3):534-547, doi : 10.1111/jbi.12013

Lucas-Picher P., Somot S., Déqué M., Decharme B., Alias A. (2013) Evaluation of the regional climate model ALADIN to simulate the climate over North America in the CORDEX framework. Clim. Dyn, 41(5-6):1117-1137, doi : 10.1007/s00382-012-1613-8

Gualdi S., S. Somot, L. Li, V. Artale, M. Adani, A. Bellucci, A. Braun, S. Calmanti, A. Carillo, A. Dell’Aquilla, M. Déqué, C. Dubois, A. Elizalde, A. Harzallah, B. Lheveder, W. May, P. Oddo, P. Ruti, A. Sanna, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault and A. Navarra (2013a) The CIRCE simulations : a new set of regional climate change projections performed with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 65-81, DOI 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00136.1


Nabat, P., Solmon, F., Mallet, M., Kok, J. F., and Somot, S (2012) : Dust emission size distribution impact on aerosol budget and radiative forcing over the Mediterranean region : a regional climate model approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10545-10567, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10545-2012, 2012.

Szczypta C., Decharme B., Carrer D., Calvet J.-C., Lafont S., Somot S., Faroux S., and Martin E. (2012) Impact of precipitation and land biophysical variables on the simulated discharge of European and Mediterranean rivers. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3351-3370, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3351-2012

Vrac M., Drobinski P., Merlo A., Herrmann M., Lavaysse C., Li L., Somot S. (2012) Dynamical and statistical downscaling of the French Mediterranean climate : uncertainty assessment. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. : 12, 2769-2784, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2769-2012

Beuvier J., Béranger K., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Somot S., Sevault F., Drillet Y., Bourdallé-Badie R., Ferry N., Lyard F. (2012) Spreading of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water after winter 2005 : time scales and deep cyclone transport. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. doi:10.1029/2011JC007679

Solé J., Ruiz S., Pascual A., Somot S., Tintoré J. (2012) Ocean color response to wind forcing in the Alboran Sea : a new forecasting method. J. Mar. Syst. Vol 98-99:1-8. Doi : 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.02.007.

Papadopoulos V.P., S. Josey ; A. Bartzokas ; S. Somot ; S. Ruiz ; P. Drakopoulou (2012) Large scale atmospheric circulation favoring deep and intermediate water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. J. Climate, 25 (18) : 6079–6091, doi : 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00657.1

Dubois C., S. Somot, S. Calmanti, A. Carillo, M. Déqué, A. Dell’Aquilla, A. Elizalde-Arellano, S. Gualdi, D. Jacob, B. Lheveder, L.Li, P. Oddo, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault (2012) Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models, Clim. Dyn. 39 (7-8):1859-1884. DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1261-4.

Jordà G., D. Gomis, E. Álvarez-Fanjul, S. Somot (2012) Atmospheric contribution to Mediterranean and nearby Atlantic sea level under different climate change scenarios. Global and Planetary Change : 80-81, 198-214, doi : 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.013

Schroeder K., Garcìa-Lafuente J., Josey S., Artale V., Buongiorno-Nardelli B., Gacic M., Gasparini G.P., Herrmann M., Lionello P., Ludwig W., Millot C., Ozsoy E., Pisacane G., Sanchez-Garrido J.C., Sannino G., Santoleri R., Somot S., Struglia M., Stanev E., Taupier-Letage I., Tsimplis M., Vargas-Yanez M., Zervakis V., Zodiatis G. (2012) Circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its variability (Chapter 4) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 187-256

Planton S., Lionello P., Artale V., Aznar R., Carillo A., Colin J., Congedi L., Dubois C., Elizalde Arellano A., Gualdi S., Hertig E., Jordà Sanchez G., Li L., Jucundus J., Piani C., Ruti P., Sanchez-Gomez E., Sannino G., Sevault F., Somot S. (2012) The climate of the Mediterranean region in future climate projections (chapter 8) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 449-502

Li L., Casado A., Dell’Aquila A., Dubois C., Elizalde A., L’Hévéder B., Lionello P., Sevault F., Somot S., Ruti P., Zampieri M. (2012) Modelling of the Mediterranean climate system (chapter 7) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 419-448

Tsimplis M.N., F. Raicich, L. Fenoglio-Marc, A. G.P. Shaw, M. Marcos, S. Somot and A. Bergamasco (2012) Recent developments in understanding sea level rise at the Adriatic coasts. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Vol. 40-41, page 59-71.
Special Issue of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C : “Venetia and Northern Adriatic Climate” (Ed. P.Lionello), ISSN 1474-7065, DOI : 10.1016/j.pce.2009.11.007

Déqué M., Somot S., Sanchez-Gomez E., Goodess C.M., Jacob D., Lenderink G., O.B. Christensen O.B. (2012) “The spread amongst ENSEMBLES regional scenarios : Regional Climate Models, driving General Circulation Models and interannual variability”, Clim. Dyn., 38:5-6, pp. 951-964, DOI : 10.1007/s00382-011-1053-x


Herrmann M., Somot S., Calmanti S., Dubois C., Sevault F. (2011) Representation of daily wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling : impact of the regional climate model configuration, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1983-2001, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1983-2011

Meyssignac B., Calafat F., Somot S., Rupolo V., Stocchi P., Llovel W., Cazenave A. (2011) Two-dimensional reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea level over 1970-2006 from tide gauge data and regional ocean circulation model outputs. Global and Planetary Change, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.03.002

Josey, S. A., S. Somot, and M. Tsimplis (2011), Impacts of atmospheric modes of variability on Mediterranean Sea surface heat exchange, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C02032, doi:10.1029/2010JC006685.

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S., Josey S.A., Dubois C., Elguindi N., Déqué M. (2011) “Evaluation of the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat budgets as simulated by an ensemble of high resolution Regional Climate Models” Clim. Dyn., 37:2067-2086, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1012-6

Beaulant A.-L., Joly B., Nuissier O., Somot S., Ducrocq V., Joly A., Sevault F., Déqué M., Ricard D. (2011) Statistico-dynamical downscaling for Mediterranean heavy precipitation, QJRMS, doi : 10.1002/qj.796, available online.

Elguindi N., Somot S., Déqué M., Ludwig W. (2011) “Climate change evolution of the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas : impact of climate model resolution” Clim. Dyn., 36 (1-2), 205-228, doi : 10.1007/s00382-009-0715-4


Herrmann M., Sevault F., Beuvier J., Somot S. (2010) What induced the exceptional 2005 convection event in the Northwestern Mediterranean basin ? Answers from a modeling study.
JGR-O (in press), doi:10.1029/2010JC006162

Coll et al. Coll Marta, Chiara Piroddi, Jeroen Steenbeek, Kristin Kaschner, Frida Ben Rais Lasram, Jacopo Aguzzi, Enric Ballesteros, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Jordi Corbera, Thanos Dailianis, Roberto Danovaro, Marta Estrada, Carlo Froglia, Bella S. Galil, Josep M. Gasol, Ruthy Gertwagen, João Gil, François Guilhaumon, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Miltiadis-Spyridon Kitsos, Athanasios Koukouras, Nikolaos Lampadariou, Elijah Laxamana, Carlos M. López-Fé de la Cuadra, Heike K. Lotze, Daniel Martin, David Mouillot, Daniel Oro, Saša Raicevich, Josephine Rius-Barile, Jose Ignacio Saiz-Salinas, Carles San Vicente, Samuel Somot, José Templado, Xavier Turon, Dimitris Vafidis, Roger Villanueva, Eleni Voultsiadou (2010) “Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea : status, patterns & threats”, PlosOne (published on-line in august 2010,

Colin J., Déqué M., Radu R., Somot S. (2010) Sensitivity study of heavy precipitations in Limited Area Model climate simulation : influence of the size of the domain and the use of the spectral nudging technique. Tellus-A, DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2010.00467.x (published on-line, May 2010)

Déqué, M., and S. Somot (2010) : Weighted frequency distributions express modelling uncertainties in the ENSEMBLES regional climate experiments, Climate Research, 44(2-3):195-209 (December 2010), doi:10.3354/cr00866

Aznar R., M.G. Sotillo, M.L. Martín, S. Somot, F. Valero (2010) “Comparison of model and satellite-derived long-term precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin : a general overview” Atmospheric Research, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.03.026

Beuvier J., F. Sevault, M. Herrmann, H. Kontoyiannis, W. Ludwig, M. Rixen, E. Stanev, K. Béranger, S. Somot (2010) Modelling the Mediterranean Sea interannual variability over the last 40 years : focus on the EMT, JGR-Ocean, 115, C08017, doi:10.1029/2009JC005950.

Ben Rais Lasram F., Guilhaumon F., Albouy C., Somot S., Thuiller W., Mouillot, D. (2010) The Mediterranean Sea as a “cul-de-sac” for endemic fishes facing climate change, Global Change Biology, doi : 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02224.x

Farda, A., M. Déqué, S. Somot, A. Horanyi, V.Spiridonov, H. Toth (2010) The ALADIN Model as Regional Climate Model for Central and Eastern Europe, Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 54 (2), 313-332, doi : 10.1007/s11200-010-0017-7


Tsimplis M.N., F. Raicich, L. Fenoglio-Marc, A. G.P. Shaw, M. Marcos, S. Somot and A. Bergamasco (2009) Recent developments in understanding sea level rise at the Adriatic coasts. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (in press). Special Issue of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C : “Venetia and Northern Adriatic Climate” (Ed. P.Lionello), Available online 18 November 2009, ISSN 1474-7065, DOI : 10.1016/j.pce.2009.11.007

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S., Mariotti A. (2009) “Future changes in the Mediterranean water budget projected by an ensemble of Regional Climate Models” Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L21401, doi:10.1029/2009GL040120

Ricard D., Beaulant A.L., Boé J., Déqué D., Ducrocq V., Joly A., Joly B., Martin E., Nuissier O., Quintana Seguí P., Ribes A., Sevault F., Somot S. (2009) Impact du changement climatique sur les événements de pluie intense du bassin Méditerranéen. La Météorologie, Projet CYPRIM, Partie II, n.67, Nov.2009, page 19-30.

Tsimplis M., Marcos M., Colin, J., Somot S., Pascual A., Shaw A.G.P. (2009) Sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea during the 1990s on the basis to two 2d and one 3d model. Journal of Marine Systems, 78 (1) : 109-123, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.04.003

Kostopoulou E., K. Tolika, I. Tegoulias, C. Giannakopoulos, S. Somot, C. Anagnostopoulou and P. Maheras (2009) Evaluation of a regional climate model using in-situ temperature observations over the Balkan Peninsula. Tellus A, 61(3) : 357-370, doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00389.x

SanchezGomez E., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2009) Ability of an ensemble of regional climate models to reproduce the weather regimes during the period 1961-2000. Clim. Dyn., 33 (5), 723-736, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0502-7


Somot S. , Sevault F., Déqué M., Crépon M. (2008) 21st century climate change scenario for the Mediterranean using a coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model. Global and Planetary Change, 63(2-3), pp. 112-126, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.10.003

Déqué, M., Somot, S. (2008) Extreme precipitation and high resolution with Aladin. Idöjaras Quaterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, 112(3-4):179-190

Herrmann, M., Estournel, C., Déqué, M., Marsaleix, P., Sevault, F., Somot, S. (2008b) Dense water formation in the Gulf of Lion shelf : impact of atmospheric interannual variability and climate change. Continental Shelf Research 28 (15) : 2092-2112, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.003

Herrmann, M. J., and S. Somot (2008) Relevance of ERA40 dynamical downscaling for modeling deep convection in the Mediterranean Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04607, doi:10.1029/2007GL032442

Herrmann M., Somot S., Sevault F., Estournel C., Déqué M. (2008a) Modeling the deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using an eddy-permitting and an eddy-resolving model : case study of the 1986-87 winter. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04011, doi:10.1029/2006JC003991

Radu, R., Déqué, M., Somot, S. (2008) Spectral nudging in a spectral regional climate model. Tellus. 60A(5):885-897. doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00343.x

Tsimplis M., Marcos M., Somot S. (2008a) 21st century Mediterranean sea level rise : steric and atmospheric pressure contributions from a regional model. Global and Planetary Change, 63(2-3) : 105-111, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.006

Tsimplis, M., Marcos, M., Somot, S., Barnier, B. (2008b) The forcing of the sea level in the Mediterranean Sea between 1960-2000. Global and Planetary Change, doi : 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.07.004


Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton (2007) : Regional Climate Projections. In : Climate Change 2007 : The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. (contributing author : S. Somot)

Jacob D., Bärring L., Christensen O.B., Christensen J.H., de Castro M., Déqué M., Giorgi F., Hagemann S., Hirschi M., Jones R., Kjellström E., Lenderink G., Rockel B., Sànchez E.S., Schär C., Seneviratne S.I., Somot S., van Ulden A., van den Hurk B. (2007) An inter-comparison of regional climate models for Europe : Design of the experiments and model performance. Climatic Change, 81, suppl. 1, pp 31-52, doi : 10.1007/s10584-006-9213-4


Somot S., F. Sevault, M. Déqué (2006) Transient climate change scenario simulation of the Mediterranean Sea for the 21st century using a high-resolution ocean circulation model. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0167-z , Volume 27, Numbers 7-8, December, 2006, pp. 851-879, Last Draft (pdf)

Li L., Bozec A., S. Somot, K. Béranger, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, F. Sevault, M. Crépon (2006) Regional atmospheric, marine processes and climate modelling (chapter 7). In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Lionello, P. and Malanotte, P. and Boscolo, R.(eds), Elsevier B.V., pp. 373-397

Ulbrich U., W. May, P. Lionello, J.G. Pinto, S. Somot (2006) The Mediterranean Climate Change Under Global Warming (chapter 8). In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Lionello, P. and Malanotte, P. and Boscolo, R.(eds), Elsevier B.V., pp.399-415


Somot S. (2005) Modélisation climatique du bassin méditerranéen : variabilité et scénarios de changement climatique. Ph-D thesis. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.

Somot S. (2005) Régionalisation des scénarios de changement climatique. Environnement, Risque et Santé, vol.4, n°2, 89-94 (somot_ERS2005.pdf)


Royer J.-F., D. Cariolle, F. Chauvin, M. Déqué, H. Douville, S. Planton, A. Rascol, J.-L. Ricard, D. Salas y Melia, F. Sevault, P. Simon, S. Somot, S. Tyteca, L. Terray, S. Valcke (2002) Simulation of climate changes during the 21-st century including stratospheric ozone C.R. Géosciences, Vol. 334, n°3, 147-154

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Other publications


Bensoussan N., Garreau P., Pairaud I., Somot S., Garrabou J. (2013) Multidisciplinary approach to assess potential risk of mortality of benthic ecosystems facing climate change in the NW Mediterranean Sea. MTS/IEEE Oceans Conference Publications, 1-7, San Diego, CA, USA, SEP 23-27, 2013

Sevault F., Somot S., Alias A., Dubois C., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nabat P., Adloff F., Déqué M. (2013) A numerical simulation of the 1980-2011 ERA-Interim period for the Mediterranean with the regional climate system model CNRM-RCSM4. Note de centre n°31. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. September 2013

Déqué M. and Somot S. (2013) Climate change on small islands. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.XXX. (available at


Beuvier J, C. Lebeaupin Brossier, K. Béranger, T. Arsouze, R. Bourdallé-Badie, C. Deltel, Y. Drillet, P. Drobinski, N. Ferry, F. Lyard, F. Sevault and S. Somot (2012) MED12, oceanic component for the modeling of the regional Mediterranean earth system, Mercator Ocean Quaterly Newsletter #46, Special Issue NEMO-MyOcean, Novembre 2012.

Somot S. “New climate modelling and new climate analysis tools” CLIM-RUN Newsletter #2, July 2012

Gomis D., Marcos M., Jordà G., Calafat F.M., Martinez A., Llasses J., Alvarez-Fanjul E., Aznar R., Sotillo M.G., Gomez M., Perez B., Padorno E., Sanchez J.C., Rodriguez-Gonzalez J.M, Ramos D., Conde J., Rodriguez-Camino E., Somot S., Tsimplis M. (2012) Escenarios climaticos marinos en el entorno de la Peninsula Iberica : Investigadores de los proyectos VANIMEDAT-2 y ESCENARIOS. RSEF Temas de Fisica [Spanish Journal of Physics], Vol 26-2, Abril-Junio 2012,

Future Heat Waves over Paris Metropolitan Area
A. L. Beaulant, A. Lemonsu, S. Somot and V. Masson National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C : Environmental Security, 2012, 135-145, DOI : 10.1007/978-94-007-2430-3_12


Dubois C., Sanchez-Gomez E., Braun A., Somot S. (2010) A gathering of observed air-sea surface fluxes over the Mediterranean Sea. Note de centre n°113. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Août 2010

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S. (2010) Study of the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat budgets simulated by an ensemble of high resolution Regional Climate Models. Note de centre n°112. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Janvier 2010.


Déqué M., Somot S., Sanchez-Gomez E. (2009) Analysis of variance of ENSEMBLES regional scenarios. Note de centre n°108. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Août 2009

Somot S., Sevaut F., Déqué M. (2009) Design and first simulation with a tri-coupled AORCM dedicated to the Mediterranean study. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.39. (available at

Sevault F., Somot S., Beuvier J. (2009) A regional version of the NEMO ocean engine on the Mediterranean Sea : NEMOMED8 user’s guide. Note de centre n°107. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mai 2009


Hallegatte S., S. Somot, and H. Nassopoulos, 2008. Anticiper le Changement Climatique autour de la Méditerrannée, Institut de Prospective Economique du Monde Méditerranéen, 76pp.

Beuvier J., F. Sevault, Somot S. (2008) Modélisation de la variabilité interannuelle de la mer Méditerranée sur la période 1960-2000 à l’aide de NEMOMED8. Note de centre n°105. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. septembre 2008

Déqué M., S. Somot (2008) Added value of high resolution for ALADIN Regional Climate Model. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.38. (available at

Somot S., Colin, J. (2008) First step towards a multi-decadal high-resolution Mediterranean sea reanalysis using dynamical downscaling of ERA40. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.38. (available at


Déqué M., S. Somot (2007) Variable resolution versus limited area modelling : perfect model approach. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.37. April 2007. pages 3-03,3-04 (available at

Martin, E., Ducrocq, V., Joly, A., Joly, B., Nuissier, O., Quintana-Segui, P., Ricard, D., Sevault, F., Somot, S., Drobinski, P. (2007) La Méditerranée, région témoin : de CYPRIM à HyMEx / The Mediterranean area : projects CYPRIM and HyMEx. Proceedings (8 pages) Congrès SHF - 29ème journée de l’hydraulique : "Variations climatiques et hydrologie", Lyon, 27-28 mars 2007. La Houille Blanche, n°6/2007, 90-96.


Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2006) Vers un scénario couplé régional de la Méditerranée au 21ème siècle. Proceedings des Atelier Modélisation Atmosphérique, CNRM Ed., Toulouse, janvier 2006

Li L., A. Bozec, S. Somot (2006) Modelling regional-scale climate change of the Mediterranean. Contribution to CLIVAR newsletter EXCHANGES.


Somot S., F. Sevault (2005) Climate Change impact on the Mediterranean sea circulation : A regional modelling approach. Note de centre n°95. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. février 2005 (somot_sevault_2005.pdf, figures available on demand)

Sevault F., S. Somot (2005) Le modèle OPA-Méditerranée forcé par les flux et la température de surface de la réanalyse ERA40 du CEP. Note de centre n°94. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. janvier 2005 (

Somot S. (2005) contribution au rapport final du projet européen PRUDENCE (p. 135-140) : publié et disponible sur

Somot S. (2005) contribution au rapport final du projet GICC-MedWater : publié et disponible sur


Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2004) Climate Change Scenario for the Mediterranean Sea. Proceedings Ocean Ops 04 (sevault_somot_deque_2004.pdf)

Déqué M., F. Sevault, S. Somot (2004) Mediterranean convection and climate change. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.34. April 2004. WMO/TD-No.1220


Somot S., F. Sevault, M. Déqué (2003) Scénario d’évolution de la mer Méditerranée pour le XXIième siècle. Proceedings des Atelier Modélisation Atmosphérique, 141-144, CNRM Ed., Toulouse, décembre 2003(somot_AMA2003.pdf)

Somot S. (2003) Water Mass Analysis in the Mediterranean Sea. Rapport de stage de fin d’études de l’ENM, n°855. Encadrement : Pr. Keith Haines (ESSC), University of Reading, ESSC, janvier-juin 2003 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Sevault F., M. Déqué, S. Somot (2003) Scénario d’évolution de la mer Méditerranée pour le XXIième siècle : le modèle OPA-Méditerranée forcé par Arpège-Climat. Note de centre n°87. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mars 2003 (sevault_somot_deque_2003.pdf)

Déqué M., F. Sevault, S. Somot : Impact of an IPCC-B2 scenario on Mediterranean sea temperature. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.33. April 2003. WMO/TD-No.1161


Somot S. (2002) Impact des fleuves sur la circulation en Méditerranée : Approche par la modélisation. Rapport de stage de modélisation de l’ENM, Encadrement : Michel Déqué (CNRM/GMGEC/EAC). juin-juillet 2002 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Somot S. (2002) Caractérisation du climat méditerranéen à partir de données observées et capacité des modèles climatiques régionaux à reproduire ce climat. Rapport de stage de climatologie de l’ENM, Encadrement : Jean-Marc Moisselin (Direction de la Climatologie, Division Développement) et Michel Déqué (CNRM/GMGEC/EAC). octobre-novembre 2002 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2002) Couplage Arpège-médias - OPA-Méditerranée : Les étapes. Note de centre n°84. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mai 2002 (sevault_somot_deque_2002.pdf)


Somot S., F. Sevault, H. Douville, M. Déqué (2001) Etude hydrologique de la mer Noire et paramétrisation des échanges avec la mer Egée. Note de centre n°74. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mars 2001 (

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 My last conferences

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Since 2000, I have given more than 100 communications in national and international conferences. Below, the most recent ones :


Somot S. (2014) Open-sea deep convection in the North-Western Mediterranean : replacing the HyMeX 2012-2013 Winter in the past climate variability. 8th International HyMeX Workshop, Valetta (Malta), 15-18 September 2014

Somot S. (2014) Med-CORDEX : a first coordinated inter-comparison of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) for the Mediterranean. 3rd Lund Regional-scale Climate Modelling Workshop « 21st Century Challenges in Regional Climate Modelling », Lund (Suède), 16-19 June 2014 (talk)

Somot S. (2014) Status of the Med-CORDEX initiative. The HyMeX Regional Climate Modelling Science Team (former TTM3). 3rd international Med-CORDEX workshop, Palaiseau (France), 26-28 May 2014 (solicited talk).

Somot S. (2014) WP2 : forçage atmosphérique. Synthèse de SiMed-2. Vers SiMed-3. Réunion du projet PPR-MERCATOR SiMED-2, Paris (France), 21-22 Mai 2014 (Oral)

Somot S. (2014) The Med-CORDEX initiative : a coordinated ensemble of new regional climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea. MerMex-PlankMed Kick-off meeting, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France), 13-16 May 2014 (Oral)

Somot S. (2014) L’initiative Med-CORDEX : intercomparaison de modèles climatiques
régionaux couplés en Méditerranée pour l’étude de la variabilité climatique passée et du
changement climatique futur. Journée thématique « Couplage océan-atmosphère » du LEFE-MANU, Paris (France), 11 avril 2014 (Oral)

Somot S. (2014) What has been attained by CLIM-RUN and what are the gaps to be filled ? The WP2 experience. Final meeting of the CLIM-RUN project, Venise (Italy), 24-25 February 2014 (talk)

Somot S. (2014) Status of the WP5 : Towards an improved Regional Climate System Model to better assess and project risks of the Mediterranean area (intense precipitation, droughts and sea level). Annual meeting ANR REMEMBER, Paris (France), 11 Février 2014 (Oral)


Somot S. (2013) Modélisation du climat régional : pourquoi et comment. Atelier GIS-Climat ClimEcol “Du climat à l’écologie, un dialogue entre communautés”, Meudon (France), 12-13 Novembre 2013 (invité)
Somot S., Ruti P. and the MedCORDEX team (2013) The Med-CORDEX initiative : first use of very high resolution RCMs and fully-coupled multi-component Regional Climate System Models to assess climate variability and change in the Mediterranean. International conference on Regional Climate – CORDEX 2013, Brussels, November 2013, Sollicited speaker.

Somot S., Houpert L., Durrieu de Madron X., Testor P., Adloff F., Dubois C., Herrmann M., Waldman R., Bouin M.-N., Sevault F. (2013) Model evaluation and understanding of the interannual variability (1980-2012) of the North-Western Mediterranean open-sea deep convection. 40th CIESM congress, Marseille, October 2013

Somot S., Houpert L., Durrieu de Madron X., Bosse A., Testor P., Adloff F., Dubois C., Herrmann M., Waldman R., Bouin M.-N., Sevault F. (2013) Observation-based indicators, model evaluation and understanding of the interannual variability (1980-2012) of the North-Western Mediterranean open-sea deep convection. 7th International HyMeX Workshop, Cassis (France), October 2013

Somot S., Nabat P. (2013) Aerosol radiative effect on Mediterranean climate : implication for solar energy. General assembly of the CLIM-RUN project, Roma (Italy), 8-10 July 2013 (talk)

Somot S. (2013) Characteristics of the NW Mediterranean Sea from Sept 2012 to March 2013 (SOP1 and SOP2). Réunion Post-HyMeX à MERCATOR (13 Juin 2013, Toulouse). Oral (invited).

Somot S. (2013) Impact des paramétrisations dans les simulations climatiques régionales. Kick-off ANR ASICS-MED (Avril 2013, Toulouse). Oral

Somot S. (2013) Characteristics of the NW Mediterranean Sea from Sept 2012 to March 2013 (SOP1 and SOP2). HyMeX SOPs’ Debriefing workshop (April 2013, Toulouse). Oral (invited).

Somot S., Ruti P. and the Med-CORDEX team (2013) The Med-CORDEX initiative : status and first achievements. European Geophysical Union Assembly 2013, April 2013, Vienne (Autriche, CL5.3) (poster)

Somot S., Testor P., Durrieu de Madron X., Houpert L., Herrmann M. , Dubois C. Adloff F., Sevault F. (2013) Modelling the interannual variability (1979-2012) of the Mediterranean open-sea deep convection using a coupled regional climate system model. European Geophysical Union Assembly 2013, April 2013, Vienne (Autriche, OS2.2) (poster)

Somot S. (2013) Présentation du WP5. Kick-off ANR REMEMBER (Janvier 2013, Toulouse). Oral


Somot S. (2012) CORDEX : The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment : background, status and perspectives. Workshop MISSTERRE-CORDEX, Nov 2012, Paris (keynote speaker).

Somot S., Colin J., Herrmann M., Alias A., Déqué M. (2012) The Med-CORDEX initiative : a large coordinated modelling effort to assess the added-value of very high resolution Regional Climate Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability and change. Workshop MISSTERRE-CORDEX, Nov 2012, Paris (oral).

Somot S., 2012 : « Regional Climate Modelling : motivations, techniques, illustrations, climate change scenario and uncertainties » First CLIM-RUN Summer school on Climate Services, 15 September 2012, Trieste, Italy (Lecturer)

Somot S. and the MedCORDEX team (2012) “The Med-CORDEX initiative : coordinated exercise with fully coupled Regional Climate System Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability and change”. 6th International HyMeX Workshop, Primosten (Croatia), May 2012 (solicited talk)

Somot S. (2012) “Regional ocean climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea : assessing the uncertainties along the 21st century” European Geophysical Union Assembly 2012, April 2012, Vienne (Autriche, CL4.3) (talk)

Somot S. (2012) “The Med-CORDEX initiative : towards fully coupled Regional Climate System Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability, change and impact” European Geophysical Union Assembly 2012, April 2012, Vienne (Autriche, CL5.10) (talk)

Somot S. (2012) « The HyMeX-TTM3 and MedCORDEX CNRM simulations ». HyMeX-TTM3 and MedCORDEX workshop, Toulouse, April 2012 (short talk).

Somot S. (2012) « HyMeX-TTM3 : Regional Climate Modelling ». HyMeX-TTM3 and MedCORDEX workshop, Toulouse, April 2012 (solicited talk).

Somot S. (2012) “WP2 : New climate modelling and analysis”. General assembly of the CLIM-RUN project, Barcelona (Spain), April 2012 (talk)

Somot S. (2012) « Analyse des flux atmosphériques pour NEMOMED12 : ARPERA-50km, WRF-20km, ALADIN-12km ». Réunion du projet PPR-MERCATOR SiMED-2, Palaiseau, Feb. 2012 (talk)

Somot S. (2012) « Water flux at the Strait of Gibraltar : observations and model validation ». Réunion du projet PPR-MERCATOR SiMED-2, Palaiseau, Feb. 2012 (talk)

Somot S. (2012) « Simulations CORDEX en France avec LMDZ, ALADIN et IPSL-WRF ». Réunion du projet LEFE-MISSTERRE, Toulouse, Jan. 2012 (talk)

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Climate Modelling of the Mediterranean Basin : Variability and climate change scenario


Modélisation Climatique du Bassin Méditerranéen : Variabilité et Scénarios de Changement Climatique

PhD thesis abstract (pdf)

PhD thesis manuscrit (pdf, 25 Mo)

PhD thesis oral (ppt, 6 Mo)


Mediterranean, regional climate modelling, air-sea coupling, ocean deep convection, thermohaline circulation, cyclogenesis, climate variability, climate change


Méditerranée, modélisation climatique régionale, couplage océan-atmosphère, convection océanique profonde, circulation thermohaline, cyclogénèse, variabilité climatique, changement climatique


Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclogenesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclogenesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower interannual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21st century with the non-coupled models : cyclogenesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean.


Les flux air-mer, la convection profonde et la cyclogénèse sont étudiés en Méditerranée grâce au développement d’un modèle régional couplé (AORCM). Il reproduit correctement ces processus et permet de quantifier et d’étudier leur variabilité climatique. Le couplage régional a un impact significatif sur le nombre de cyclogénèses intenses en hiver et sur les flux et précipitations associés. Il simule une variabilité interannuelle plus faible qu’en mode forcé pour les flux et la convection et permet de comprendre les rétroactions qui la pilotent. L’impact régional d’un scénario climatique est analysé avec les modèles non-couplés : le nombre de cyclogénèses diminue, les pluies associées augmentent au printemps et en automne et diminuent en été. En outre, la Méditerranée se réchauffe, se sale et sa circulation thermohaline s’affaiblit fortement. Cette thèse conclut de plus à la nécessité des AORCMs pour étudier l’impact du changement climatique en Méditerranée.

Tuesday, 13th December 2005 (Conference room at CNRM, Toulouse)

Mardi 13 décembre 2005 (Salle de Conférence au CNRM, Toulouse)

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